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Post 9/11 Veterans

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Post 9/11 Veterans

veteranMany Veterans who served after September 11, 2001 were deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan for Operations Iraqi Freedom/Enduring Freedom/New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND). OEF/OIF/OND Veterans have been found to have high rates of mental health problems, but low rates of mental health service utilization (Hoge, Auchterlonie, & Milliken, 2006; Hoge, Castro, Messer, McGurk, Cotting, & Koffman, 2004).

Significant risk factors of modest magnitude for Veterans becoming homeless are those who spent their service deployed in Iraq or Afghanistan and more specifically, post-traumatic stress disorder among Veterans deployed there.  Socioeconomic and behavioral health factors provided stronger indicators of risk. Gender was not a significant indicator of differential risk. Risk factors for becoming homeless among a cohort of Veterans who served in the era of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. For more information on risk factors for the cohort of Veterans who served in the era of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, please see the publication listed below, titled, "Risk Factors for Becoming Homeless Among a Cohort of Veterans Who Served in the Era of the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts". 

In addition, it is estimated that Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) have a 27% higher rate of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) diagnoses than Veterans of other conflicts who receive VA healthcare services (VA Health Services Research & Development Service Collaborative Research to Enhance and Advance Transformation & Excellence: Promoting Access and Value in Substance Use Disorder Treatment). 

Information for Returning Vets

Information for Returning Vets

Women Veterans Health Care Topics

Women Veterans Health Care Topics Posters

VA Mental Health Services and Vet Center Services for Returning Veterans and their Families

VA Mental Health Services and Vet Center Services for Returning Veterans and their Families

Associations among Clinical Variables and Anger Differ by Early Life Adversity Among Post-9/11 Veterans. Etchin AG, Corbo V, Brown E, Fortier CB, Fonda JR, Milberg WP, Currao A, McGlinchey RE. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2022 Feb 6. doi: 10.1002/cpp.2722. Epub ahead of print.

Cognitive Therapy for Grief Among Combat Veterans: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Bereavement Interventions. Acierno R, Kauffman B, Muzzy W, Tejada MH, Lejuez C. Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure vs. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2021 Dec;38(12):1470-1478. doi: 10.1177/1049909121989021. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Acceptance and Commitment Training for Veterans with Polytrauma: A randomized controlled trial protocol. Uzdavines A, Gonzalez RD, Price A, Broadway D, Smith TL, Rodrigues M, Woods K, Zimmerman MB, Jorge R, Dindo L. Contemp Clin Trials. 2021 Dec;111:106601. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2021.106601. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Treatment of Anger Problems in Previously Deployed Post-911 Veterans: A randomized controlled trial. Shea MT, Stout RL, Reddy MK, Sevin E, Presseau C, Lambert J, Cameron A. Depress Anxiety. 2021 Dec 8. doi: 10.1002/da.23230. Epub ahead of print.  

Path Analysis of the Mediating Roles of Personality, Distress, and Cognitive Flexibility in the Subjective Well-Being of Combat Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury. Donnelly K, Donnelly JP. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2021 Nov-Dec 01;36(6):E381-E390. doi: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000688.

Health Symptoms after War Zone Deployment-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Contributions of Mental Disorders and Lifetime Brain Injuries. McDonald SD, Walker WC, Cusack SE, Yoash-Gantz RE, Pickett TC, Cifu DX, Mid-Atlantic Mirecc Workgroup V, Tupler LA. Brain Inj. 2021 Sep 19;35(11):1338-1348. doi: 10.1080/02699052.2021.1959058. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Temporal Sequencing of Mental Health Symptom Severity and Suicidal Ideation in Post-9/11 Men and Women Veterans Who Recently Separated from the Military. Lawrence KA, Vogt D, Nigam S, Dugan AJ, Slade E, Smith BN. Chronic Stress (Thousand Oaks). 2021 Nov 24;5:24705470211061347. doi: 10.1177/24705470211061347. PMID: 34870056; PMCID: PMC8637689.

Benefits of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia for Women Veterans with and without Probable Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Carlson GC, Kelly MR, Mitchell M, Josephson KR, McGowan SK, Culver NC, Kay M, Alessi CA, Fung CH, Washington DL, Hamilton A, Yano EM, Martin JL. Womens Health Issues. 2021 Nov 20:S1049-3867(21)00160-2. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2021.10.007. Epub ahead of print. 

Associations between Justice Involvement and PTSD and Depressive symptoms, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicide Attempt among Post-9/11 Veterans. Holliday R, Hoffmire CA, Martin WB, Hoff RA, Monteith LL. Psychol Trauma. 2021 Oct;13(7):730-739. doi: 10.1037/tra0001038. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Opioid use as a predictor of pain outcomes in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with chronic pain: Analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Bushey MA, Wu J, Outcalt SD, Krebs EE, Ang D, Kline M, Yu Z, Bair MJ. Pain Med. 2021 Aug 19:pnab237. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnab237

Associations Between Justice Involvement and PTSD and Depressive Symptoms, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicide Attempt among Post-9/11 Veterans. Holliday R, Hoffmire CA, Martin WB, Hoff RA, Monteith LL. Psychol Trauma. 2021 Jul 29. doi: 10.1037/tra0001038

Correlates and Consequences of Emotion Regulation Difficulties among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans. Pebole MM, Lyons RC, Gobin RL. Psychol Trauma. 2021 Jun 10. doi: 10.1037/tra0001046

Mental health treatment utilization and Relationship Functioning among Male and Female OEF/OIF Veterans. Harper KL, Thompson-Hollands J, Keane TM, Marx BP. Psychol Serv. 2021 Jun 3. doi: 10.1037/ser0000548

Cannabis use disorder, anger, and violence in Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans. Dillon KH, Van Voorhees EE, Elbogen EB, Beckham JC; VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Workgroup, Calhoun PS. J Psychiatr Res. 2021 Jun;138:375-379. Epub 2021 Apr 22. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.04.018

A network analysis of risk factors for suicide in Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans. Graziano RC, Aunon FM, LoSavio ST, Elbogen EB, Beckham JC; VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Workgroup, Dillon KH. J Psychiatr Res. 2021 Jun;138:264-271. Epub 2021 Apr 5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.03.065

Risk of suicide among U.S. Veterans who deployed as part of Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn. Bullman T, Schneiderman A. Inj Epidemiol. 2021 Jun 16;8(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s40621-021-00332-y

Military sexual trauma and suicidal ideation in VHA-care-seeking OEF/OIF/OND Veterans without mental health diagnosis or treatment. Decker SE, Ramsey CM, Ronzitti S, Kerns RD, Driscoll MA, Dziura J, Skanderson M, Bathulapalli H, Brandt CA, Haskell SG, Goulet JL. Psychiatry Res. 2021 Jun 29;303:114089. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114089

Risk of Suicide among U.S. Veterans who Deployed as Part of Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn. Bullman T, Schneiderman A. Inj Epidemiol. 2021 Jun 16;8(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s40621-021-00332-y

A Comparison of Dimensional and Categorical Approaches to Characterizing the Association Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Future Suicide Attempts.
Lee DJ, Kearns JC, Stanley IH, Spitzer EG, Woodward B, Keane TM, Marx BP. J Trauma Stress. 2021 May 21. doi: 10.1002/jts.22689

Implementing eScreening for suicide prevention in VA post-9/11 transition programs using a stepped-wedge, mixed-method, hybrid type-II implementation trial: a study protocol. Pittman JOE, Lindamer L, Afari N, Depp C, Villodas M, Hamilton A, Kim B, Mor MK, Almklov E, Gault J, Rabin B. Implement Sci Commun. 2021 Apr 29;2(1):46. doi: 10.1186/s43058-021-00142-9

Cannabis use disorder, anger, and violence in Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans. Dillon KH, Van Voorhees EE, Elbogen EB, Beckham JC; VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Workgroup, Calhoun PS. J Psychiatr Res. 2021 Apr 22;138:375-379. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.04.018

Ketamine Use in Operation Enduring Freedom. Leslie E, Pittman E, Drew B, Walrath B. Mil Med. 2021 Apr 7:usab117. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usab117

A Network Analysis of Risk Factors for Suicide in Iraq/Afghanistan-Era Veterans.
 Graziano RC, Aunon FM, LoSavio ST, Elbogen EB, Beckham JC, Dillon KH; VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Workgroup. J Psychiatr Res. 2021 Apr 5;138:264-271. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.03.065

Cause-specific mortality risks among U.S. Veterans: 25 years after their service in the 1990-1991 gulf war. Bullman T, Schneiderman A, Dursa E. Ann Epidemiol. 2021 Feb 11;57:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2021.01.005

Longitudinal assessment of PTSD and illicit drug use among male and female OEF-OIF Veterans. Livingston NA, Lee DJ, Mahoney CT, Farmer SL, Cole T, Marx BP, Keane TM. Addict Behav. 2021 Feb 8;118:106870. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.106870

Association of Combat Experiences With Suicide Attempts Among Active-Duty US Service Members. LeardMann CA, Matsuno RK, Boyko EJ, Powell TM, Reger MA, Hoge CW; Millennium Cohort Study. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Feb 1;4(2):e2036065. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.36065

Influence of suicidal ideation on mental health care following risk assessment among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Holder N, Holliday R, Khan AJ, Shiner B, Neylan TC, Madden E, Li Y, Patterson OV, DuVall SL, Maguen S. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2021 Jan 31:S0163-8343(21)00018-9. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2021.01.012

Deployment and Psychological Correlates of Suicide Ideation: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study of Risk and Resilience Among Combat Veterans. Yurgil KA, Barkauskas DA, Baker DG. Mil Med. 2020 Nov 17:usaa450. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usaa450

An interdisciplinary approach to the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of OEF/OIF Veterans with mild traumatic brain injury. Gress Smith JL, Roberts NA, Borowa D, Bushnell M. Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2020 Sep 2:1-9. doi: 10.1080/23279095.2020.1810690

Posttraumatic stress disorder and deliberate self-harm among military veterans: Indirect effects through negative and positive emotion dysregulation. Raudales AM, Weiss NH, Goncharenko S, Forkus SR, Contractor AA. Psychol Trauma. 2020 Sep 3. doi: 10.1037/tra0000962

Timing of evidence-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder initiation among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans in the Veterans Health Administration. Holder N, Shiner B, Li Y, Madden E, Neylan TC, Seal KH, Lujan C, Patterson OV, DuVall SL, Maguen S. Psychol Trauma. 2020 Mar;12(3):260-271. doi: 10.1037/tra0000496.

Intimate Partner Violence Among Female OEF/OIF/OND Veterans Who Were Evaluated for Traumatic Brain Injury in the Veterans Health Administration: A Preliminary Investigation. Iverson KM, et al. J Interpers Violence. 2020 Jul;35(13-14):2422-2445. doi: 10.1177/0886260517702491. Epub 2017 Apr 18. J Interpers Violence. 2020. PMID: 29294714

Special Needs of and Promising Solutions for Incarcerated Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn. Pajak A.Pajak A. J Correct Health Care. 2020 Jul 27:1078345820938032. doi: 10.1177/1078345820938032.

A psychosocial mediational model of homelessness among U.S. male and female veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Spinola S, Hoff RA, Tsai J.Spinola S, et al. Health Soc Care Community. 2020 Jul 14. doi: 10.1111/hsc.13106. Online ahead of print.

Factors associated with PTSD symptom improvement among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans receiving evidenced-based psychotherapy. Maguen S, Holder N, Li Y, Madden E, Neylan TC, Seal KH, Lujan C, Patterson OV, DuVall SL, Shiner B.Maguen S, et al. J Affect Disord. 2020 Aug 1;273:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.04.039. Epub 2020 May 1.

The 20-year course of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among veterans. Lee DJ, Lee LO, Bovin MJ, Moshier SJ, Dutra SJ, Kleiman SE, Rosen RC, Vasterling JJ, Keane TM, Marx BP.Lee DJ, et al. J Abnorm Psychol. 2020 Jun 1. doi: 10.1037/abn0000571. Online ahead of print.

Mental Health Outcomes Among Military Service Members After Severe Injury in Combat and TBI. Chin DL, Zeber JE.Chin DL, et al. Mil Med. 2020 Jun 8;185(5-6):e711-e718. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usz440.

Factors Associated With Suicide Ideation in US Army Soldiers During Deployment in Afghanistan. Ursano RJ, Herberman Mash HB, Kessler RC, Naifeh JA, Fullerton CS, Aliaga PA, Stokes CM, Wynn GH, Ng THH, Dinh HM, Gonzalez OI, Zaslavsky AM, Sampson NA, Kao TC, Heeringa SG, Nock MK, Stein MB. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Jan 3;3(1):e1919935. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19935.

Genetic association of FKBP5 with PTSD in US service members deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Zhang L, Hu XZ, Yu T, Chen Z, Dohl J, Li X, Benedek DM, Fullerton CS, Wynn G, Barrett JE, Li M, Russell DW; Biomarker team, Ursano RJ. J Psychiatr Res. 2020 Jan 3;122:48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.12.014. [Epub ahead of print]

Use of Health Services Among Post-9/11 Veterans With Mental Health Conditions Within 90 Days of Separation From the Military. Aronson KR, Perkins DF, Morgan NR, Bleser JA, Vogt D, Copeland LA, Finley EP, Gilman CL. Psychiatr Serv. 2020 May 12:appips201900326. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201900326. [Epub ahead of print]

Themes in experiences of PTSD symptoms and relationships among male veterans with risky sexual behavior. Decker SE, Pavlo A, Harper A, Herring Y, Black AC. Psychol Trauma. 2020 Apr 27. doi: 10.1037/tra0000569. [Epub ahead of print]

Predictors of Employment Status in Male and Female Post-9/11 Veterans Evaluated for Traumatic Brain Injury. Amara JH, Stolzmann KL, Iverson KM, Pogoda TK. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2019 Jan/Feb;34(1):11-20. doi: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000404.

Parallel process modeling of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and alcohol use severity in returning veterans. Mahoney CT, Livingston NA, Wong MM, Rosen RC, Marx BP, Keane TM. Psychol Addict Behav. 2020 Mar 2. doi: 10.1037/adb0000569. [Epub ahead of print]

The role of depression and suicidal cognitions as contributors to suicide risk among active duty soldiers reporting symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Rugo KF, Tabares JV, Crowell SE, Baucom BR, Rudd MD, Bryan CJ. J Affect Disord. 2020 Mar 15;265:333-341. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.01.095. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Predicting and Planning for Musculoskeletal Service-Connected Disabilities in VA Using Disability for Active Duty OEF/OIF Military Service Members. Gundlapalli AV, Redd AM, Suo Y, Pettey WBP, Brignone E, Chin DL, Walker LE, Poltavskiy EA, Janak JC, Howard JT, Sosnov LCJA, Stewart LCIJ.Mil Med. 2020 Jan 7;185(Supplement_1):413-419. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usz223.

Timing of evidence-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder initiation among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans in the Veterans Health Administration. Holder N, Shiner B, Li Y, Madden E, Neylan TC, Seal KH, Lujan C, Patterson OV, DuVall SL, Maguen S. Psychol Trauma. 2020 Mar;12(3):260-271. doi: 10.1037/tra0000496. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Influence of hardiness, avoidance coping, and combat exposure on depression in returning war veterans: A moderated-mediation study. Bartone PT, Homish GG. J Affect Disord. 2020 Mar 15;265:511-518. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.01.127. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Timing of evidence-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder initiation among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans in the Veterans Health Administration. Holder N, Shiner B, Li Y, Madden E, Neylan TC, Seal KH, Lujan C, Patterson OV, DuVall SL, Maguen S. Psychol Trauma. 2020 Mar;12(3):260-271. doi: 10.1037/tra0000496. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Symptom Severity, Self-efficacy and Treatment-Seeking for Mental Health Among US Iraq/Afghanistan Military Veterans. Keeling M, Barr N, Atuel H, Castro CA. Community Ment Health J. 2020 Feb 17. doi: 10.1007/s10597-020-00578-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Sex Differences in Military Sexual Trauma and Severe Self-Directed Violence. Gross GM, Ronzitti S, Combellick JL, Decker SE, Mattocks KM, Hoff RA, Haskell SG, Brandt CA, Goulet JL. Am J Prev Med. 2020 Feb 6. pii: S0749-3797(20)30017-9. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2019.12.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Mental Health and Suicidality in Separating U.S. Reserve and National Guard Personnel. Wang J, Ursano RJ, Gifford RK, Dinh H, Farooq S, Broshek CE, Cohen GH, Sampson L, Galea S, Fullerton CS. Psychiatry. 2020 Feb 14:1-10. doi: 10.1080/00332747.2020.1715162. [Epub ahead of print]

Combat Experiences Link With Posttraumatic Growth Among Veterans Across Conflicts: The Influence of PTSD and Depression. LaRocca MA, Avery TJ. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2020 Feb 7. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001147. [Epub ahead of print]

Understanding the impact of complicated grief on combat related posttraumatic stress disorder, guilt, suicide, and functional impairment in a clinical trial of post-9/11 service members and veterans. Simon NM, Hoeppner SS, Lubin RE, Robinaugh DJ, Malgaroli M, Norman SB, Acierno R, Goetter EM, Hellberg SN, Charney ME, Bui E, Baker AW, Smith E, Kim HM, Rauch SAM. Depress Anxiety. 2020 Jan;37(1):63-72. doi: 10.1002/da.22911.

Rationale and design of an efficacy study of Group Prolonged Exposure for PTSD. C'de Baca J, Castillo D, DeBeer B, Qualls C. Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2019 Dec 30;17:100509. doi: 10.1016/j.conctc.2019.100509. eCollection 2020 Mar.

Risk for suicide attempts among United States Air Force active duty members with suicide ideation: An ecological perspective. Langhinrichsen-Rohling J, Snarr JD, Slep AMS, Heyman RE. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2019 Dec;87(12):1124-1136. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000435. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Direct and indirect effects of mindfulness, PTSD, and depression on self-stigma of mental illness in OEF/OIF veterans. Barr N, Davis JP, Diguiseppi G, Keeling M, Castro C. Psychol Trauma. 2019 Dec 5. doi: 10.1037/tra0000535. [Epub ahead of print]

Is Emotion Dysregulation Associated With Suicidal Ideation in Post 9/11 Veterans?  Decker SE, Hoff R, Martino S, Mazure CM, Park CL, Porter E, Kraus SW.Decker SE, et al. Arch Suicide Res. 2019 Sep 26:1-15. doi: 10.1080/13811118.2019.1661895.

Opioid Use Initiation, Progression, and Motivations Among OEF/OIF/OND-Era Veterans in New York City: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis Luther Elliott, Andrew Golub, Alexander Bennett Mil Behav Health. 2018; 6(1): 75–81. Published online 2017 Jul 18. doi: 10.1080/21635781.2017.1343163

Risk Factors for Concurrent Suicidal Ideation and Violent Impulses in Military Veterans. Eric B. Elbogen, H. Ryan Wagner, Nathan A. Kimbrel, Mira Brancu, Jennifer Naylor, Robert Graziano, Eric Crawford, VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Workgroup Psychol Assess. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2019 Apr 1. Published in final edited form as: Psychol Assess. 2018 Apr; 30(4): 425–435. Published online 2017 Jun 19.

Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Psychopathology and Reduced Functioning in a Post 9/11 Veteran Sample Arielle A.J. Scoglio, Steven D. Shirk, Rani A. Hoff, Marc N. Potenza, Carolyn M. Mazure, Crystal L. Park, Sherry A. McKee, Elizabeth A. Porter, Shane W. Kraus J Interpers Violence. 2017 Dec 1 : 886260517746182. Published online 2017 Dec 1. doi: 10.1177/0886260517746182

Comorbidity Correlates of Death Among New Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan Deployment. Copeland LA, Finley EP, Bollinger MJ, Amuan ME, Pugh MJ. Med Care. 2016 Dec;54(12):1078-1081.

Military Sexual Trauma and Co-Occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depressive Disorders, and Substance Use Disorders among Returning Afghanistan and Iraq Veterans Amanda K. Gilmore, Emily Brignone, Janelle M. Painter, Keren Lehavot, Jamison Fargo, Ying Suo, Tracy Simpson, Marjorie E. Carter, Rebecca K. Blais, Adi V. Gundlapalli Womens Health Issues. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2017 Sep 1. Published in final edited form as: Womens Health Issues. 2016 Sep-Oct; 26(5): 546–554. Published online 2016 Aug 12. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2016.07.001

Socioeconomic Disparities in Sleep Duration Among Veterans of the US Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan Rachel Widome, Agnes Jensen, Steven S. Fu Am J Public Health. 2015 Feb; 105(2): e70–e74. Published online 2015 Feb. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302375

Risk Factors for Becoming Homeless Among a Cohort of Veterans Who Served in the Era of the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts Stephen Metraux, Limin X. Clegg, John D. Daigh, Dennis P. Culhane, Vincent Kane. Am J Public Health. 2013 Dec; 103(Suppl 2): S255–S261. Published online 2013 Dec. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301432

Tsai, J., Pietrzak, R. H., & Rosenheck, R. A. (2013). Homeless veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan: Gender differences, combat exposure, and comparisons with previous cohorts of homeless veterans. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40(5), 400-405.

Tsai, J., Rosenheck, R. A., J. Kasprow, W., & McGuire, J. F. (2013). Risk of incarceration and other characteristics of Iraq and Afghanistan era veterans in state and federal prisons. Psychiatric Services, 64(1), 36-43.

Opioid and Other Substance Misuse, Overdose Risk, and the Potential for Prevention Among a Sample of OEF/OIF Veterans in New York City Alex S. Bennett, Luther Elliott, Andrew Golub Subst Use Misuse. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 Oct 3. Published in final edited form as: Subst Use Misuse. 2013 Jul; 48(10): 894–907. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2013.796991

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Connecting active duty and returning veterans to mental health treatment: interventions and treatment adaptations that may reduce barriers to care. Zinzow HM, Britt TW, McFadden AC, Burnette CM, Gillispie S. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012 Dec;32(8):741-53. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.09.002. Epub 2012 Sep 11. Review.

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