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VA Homeless Programs





illustration of diverse group of peopleMost minority groups in the United States experience homelessness at higher rates than whites, therefore, make up a disproportionate share of the homeless population.

infographic In every state, african americans are more likely than whites to experience homelessness.

National Alliance to End Homelessness Racial Disparity Toolkit:

Department of Housing & Urban Development CoC Analysis Tool: Race and Ethnicity

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom expression in racially and ethnically diverse women Veterans. Ceja A, Yalch MM, Maguen S. Psychiatry Res. 2022 Jan 30;309:114426. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2022.114426. Epub ahead of print.

Race/Ethnicity and Community Participation Among Veterans and Service Members With Traumatic Brain Injury: A VA Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Study. Stevens LF, Ketchum JM, Sander AM, Callender L, Dillahunt-Aspillaga C, Dreer LE, Finn JA, Gary KW, Graham KM, Juengst SB, Kajankova M, Kolakowsky-Hayner S, Lequerica AH, Rabinowitz AR. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2021 Nov-Dec 01;36(6):408-417. doi: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000657.

Suicide Attempts Among Racial and Ethnic Groups in a Nationally Representative Sample. Carter SP, Campbell SB, Wee JY, Law KC, Lehavot K, Simpson T, Reger MA. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2021 Jul 21:1-11. doi: 10.1007/s40615-021-01115-3

Treatment Outcomes Among Black Adults Receiving Medication for Opioid Use Disorder. Parlier-Ahmad AB, Pugh M Jr, Martin CE. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2021 Jul 12:1-11. doi: 10.1007/s40615-021-01095-4

The Role of Race in Rural-Urban Suicide Disparities. Peltzman T, Gottlieb DJ, Levis M, Shiner B. J Rural Health. 2021 Jun 15. doi: 10.1111/jrh.12603

Racial Disparities in Sexual Assault Characteristics and Mental Health Care After Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Exams. Mosley EA, Prince JR, McKee GB, Carter SE, Leone RM, Gill-Hopple K, Gilmore AK. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2021 Apr 27. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2020.893

The Rising Tide of Elderly African-American Suicides: A Call for Action. Price JH, Khubchandani J, Price JA. J Natl Med Assoc. 2021 Apr 27:S0027-9684(21)00056-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2021.03.009

Growing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Buprenorphine Distribution in the United States, 2007-2017. Schuler MS, Dick AW, Stein BD. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 Apr 16;223:108710. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108710

The Problem of Veteran Homelessness: An Update for the New Decade. Tsai J, Pietrzak RH, Szymkowiak D. Am J Prev Med. 2021 Feb 11:S0749-3797(21)00066-0. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2020.12.012

The Relationship of Self-Compassion and Suicide Risk Factors in American Indian/Alaska Native People.
Dolezal S, Winterowd C, Farra A. Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2021;28(1):103-124. doi: 10.5820/aian.2801.2021.103

Interpersonal Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Black Women: Does Racial Discrimination Matter? Mekawi Y, Carter S, Brown B, Martinez de Andino A, Fani N, Michopoulos V, Powers A. J Trauma Dissociation. 2021 Jan 18:1-16. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2020.1869098

The Impact of Discriminatory Stress on Changes in Posttraumatic Stress Severity at the Intersection of Race/Ethnicity and Gender. McClendon J, Kressin N, Perkins D, Copeland LA, Finley EP, Vogt D. J Trauma Dissociation. 2021 Jan 18:1-18. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2020.1869079

Differences in Opioid Overdose Mortality Rates Among Middle-Aged Adults by Race/Ethnicity and Sex, 1999-2018. Hoopsick RA, Homish GG, Leonard KE. Public Health Rep. 2020 Nov 19:33354920968806. doi: 10.1177/0033354920968806

Veterans' perceptions of racial bias in VA mental healthcare and their impacts on patient engagement and patient-provider communication. Eliacin J, Matthias MS, Cunningham B, Burgess DJ. Patient Educ Couns. 2020 Sep;103(9):1798-1804. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2020.03.017

Relationship of neighborhood social determinants of health on racial/ethnic mortality disparities in US veterans-Mediation and moderating effects. Wong MS, Steers WN, Hoggatt KJ, Ziaeian B, Washington DL.Wong MS, et al. Health Serv Res. 2020 Aug 29. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.13547

Disparities in Care and Mortality Among Homeless Adults Hospitalized for Cardiovascular Conditions. Wadhera RK, Khatana SAM, Choi E, Jiang G, Shen C, Yeh RW, Joynt Maddox KE. JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Nov 18. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.6010. [Epub ahead of print]

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Lifetime Prevalence of Homelessness in the United States.
Fusaro VA, Levy HG, Shaefer HL. Demography. 2018 Dec;55(6):2119-2128. doi: 10.1007/s13524-018-0717-0.

Health Disparities in Veterans: A Map of the Evidence. Kondo K, Low A, Everson T, Gordon CD, Veazie S, Lozier CC, Freeman M, Motu'apuaka M, Mendelson A, Friesen M, Paynter R, Friesen C, Anderson J, Boundy E, Saha S, Quiñones A, Kansagara D. Med Care. 2017 Sep;55 Suppl 9 Suppl 2:S9-S15. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000756.

Which Homeless Veterans Benefit From a Peer Mentor and How? Resnik L, Ekerholm S, Johnson EE, Ellison ML, O'Toole TP. J Clin Psychol. 2017 Sep;73(9):1027-1047. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22407. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Peer navigators to promote engagement of homeless African Americans with serious mental illness in primary care. Corrigan PW, Pickett S, Schmidt A, Stellon E, Hantke E, Kraus D, Dubke R; Community Based Participatory Research Team. Psychiatry Res. 2017 Sep;255:101-103. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.05.020. Epub 2017 May 17.

Predicting Homelessness among Emerging Adults Aging Out of Foster Care. Shah MF, Liu Q, Mark Eddy J, Barkan S, Marshall D, Mancuso D, Lucenko B, Huber A. Am J Community Psychol. 2017 Sep;60(1-2):33-43. doi: 10.1002/ajcp.12098. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Religious and Spiritual Practices Among Home-less Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives with Severe Alcohol Problems. Wendt DC, Collins SE, Nelson LA, Serafini K, Clifasefi SL, Donovan DM. Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2017;24(3):39-62. doi: 10.5820/aian.2403.2017.39.

Factors associated with substance use in older homeless adults: Results from the HOPE HOME study. Spinelli MA, Ponath C, Tieu L, Hurstak EE, Guzman D, Kushel M. Subst Abus. 2017 Jan-Mar;38(1):88-94. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2016.1264534. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Effect of the Economic Recession on Primary Care Access for the Homeless. White BM, Jones WJ, Moran WP, Simpson KN. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2016;27(3):1577-91. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2016.0104.

Does Race Matter in Addressing Homelessness? A Review of the Literature. Jones MM. World Med Health Policy. 2016 Jun;8(2):139-156. doi: 10.1002/wmh3.189. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality. Gattis MN, Larson A. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2016 Jan;86(1):79-90. doi: 10.1037/ort0000096. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Determinants of social status among homeless adults. Moisiuc A, Reitzel LR, Kendzor DE, Childress S, Businelle MS. Am J Health Behav. 2015 Jan;39(1):148-56. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.39.1.16.

The relationship between spiritual resources and life attitudes of African American homeless women.
Gash J, Washington OG, Moxley DP, Feen-Calligan H. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2014 Apr;35(4):238-50. doi: 10.3109/01612840.2013.797062.

Racial and ethnic service use disparities among homeless adults with severe mental illnesses receiving ACT. Horvitz-Lennon M, Zhou D, Normand SL, Alegría M, Thompson WK. Psychiatr Serv. 2011 Jun;62(6):598-604. doi: 10.1176/ps.62.6.pss6206_0598.

Health and health care disparities among homeless women. Teruya C, Longshore D, Andersen RM, Arangua L, Nyamathi A, Leake B, Gelberg L. Women Health. 2010 Dec;50(8):719-36. doi: 10.1080/03630242.2010.532754

Health disparities in the Native Hawaiian homeless. Yamane DP, Oeser SG, Omori J. Hawaii Med J. 2010 Jun;69(6 Suppl 3):35-41.

Psychological Trauma for Native Hawaiians and Americans of Japanese Ancestry Who Served in Vietnam

Psychological Trauma for American Indians Who Served in Vietnam

PTSD Among Ethnic Minority Veterans

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National Alliance to End Homelessness: The National Alliance to End Homelessness is a nonprofit organization whose sole purpose is to end homelessness in the United States. They use research and data to find solutions to homelessness; work with federal and local partners to create a solid base of policy and resources that support those solutions; and then help communities implement them.

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has started awarding points for addressing racial disparities in the most recent Continuum of Care (CoC) funding application, and it recently released an analysis tool on race/ethnicity and homelessness.

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