VA CLINICIAN AND RESEARCHER - Tools for Assessment and Recruitment - VHA Pain Management
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VA CLINICIAN AND RESEARCHER - Tools for Assessment and Recruitment

Tools for Assessment and Recruitment

Research Tools

Chronic pain is complex and affects multiple areas of functioning. As such, there are a number of instruments to measure chronic pain and related constructs. The list below is not exhaustive, but provides commonly used measures across a number of domains related to chronic pain.

Overall Pain

Measure Availability  Citation Measure Recommended  
Brief Pain Inventory- Short Form $ (with possible exceptions) Cleeland, C. S. (1989). Measurement of pain by subjective report. Advances in pain research and therapy, 12, 391-403. Krebs, E. E., Lorenz, K. A., Bair, M. J., Damush, T. M., Wu, J., Sutherland, J. M., ... & Kroenke, K. (2009).  symptomresearch@
mdanderson.org 
 
PEG-3  open use Development and initial validation of the PEG, a three-item scale assessing pain intensity and interference. Journal of general internal medicine24(6), 733-738.    
Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire  open use Melzack, Ronald. "The short-form McGill pain questionnaire." Pain 30.2 (1987): 191-197.     
PROMIS Numeric rating Scale   open use https://assessmentcenter.net/   NIH

Pain Interference

Measure Availability  Citation  Measure Recommended
West Haven Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI) open use Kerns, R. D., Turk, D. C., & Rudy, T. E. (1985). The west haven-yale multidimensional pain inventory (WHYMPI). Pain23(4), 345-356   IMMPACT
PROMIS Pain Interference open use https://assessmentcenter.net   NIH 

Disability

Measure Availability  Citation  Measure Recommended 
Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) open use Roland, M., & Morris, R. (1983). A Study of the Natural History of Back Pain: Part I Development of a Reliable and Sensitive Measure of Disability in Low-Back Pain. spine, 8(2), 141-144.Fairbank, J. C., Couper, J., Davies, J. B., & O’brien, J. P. (1980). Krebs, E. E., Lorenz, K. A., Bair, M. J., Damush, T. M., Wu, J., Sutherland, J. M., ... & Kroenke, K. (2009).     
Oswetry Disability Index (ODI) open use Development and initial validation of the PEG, a three-item scale assessing pain intensity and interference. Journal of general internal medicine24(6), 733-738.    
Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QBPDS) open use Melzack, Ronald. "The short-form McGill pain questionnaire." Pain 30.2 (1987): 191-197.     
Pain Disability Index (PDI) open use The Pain Disability Index: psychometric and validity data. Arch Phys Med Rehabil68(7), 438-41.    

Depression

Measure Availability  Citation  Measure Recommended
Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) $ Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. 1996. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation2. Heuchert JP, McNair DM. Profile of Mood States 2nd edition.   IMMPACT
Profile of Mood States  $ North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems; 2012. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001).   IMMPACT
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) open use The PHQ‐9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of general internal medicine16(9), 606-613  Radloff, L. S. (1977).    
Clinical Epidemiological Scale - Depression    open use The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied psychological measurement, 1(3), 385-401. Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983).    
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) open use The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta psychiatrica scandinavica, 67(6), 361-370.    
PROMIS Short Form v1.0 - Depression open use https://assessmentcenter.net/    

Sleep

Measure Availability  Citation  Measure Recommended
Insomnia Severity Index open use Bastien, C. H., Vallières, A., & Morin, C. M. (2001). Validation of the Insomnia Severity Index as an outcome measure for insomnia research. Sleep medicine, 2(4), 297-307. Weaver TE, Laizner AM, Evans LK, et al.    
Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionairre-10 (FOSQ-30/FOSQ-10)  open use An instrument to measure functional status outcomes for disorders of excessive sleepiness. Sleep 1997;20:835-43. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ Use with permission from developer  
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) open use The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research 28:193-213, 1989. With permission: academic research and individual clinical practice: free of charge  
Medical Outcomesdy Sleep Index     open use Hays RD, Martin SA, Sesti AM, et al. Psychometric properties of the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep measure. Sleep Med.2005;6:41–44.    

Pain Catastrophizing

Measure Availability  Citation  Measure Recommended
Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS open use Sullivan, M. J., Bishop, S. R., & Pivik, J. (1995). The pain catastrophizing scale: development and validation. Psychological assessment7(4), 524.    

Opioid Use Disorder Severity

Measure Availability  Citation  Measure Recommended
Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) open use Skinner, H. A. (1982). The drug abuse screening test. Addictive behaviors, 7(4), 363-371 Miele, G. M., Carpenter, K. M., Cockerham, M. S., Trautman, K. D., Blaine, J., & Hasin, D. S. (2000).    
Substance Dependence Severity Scale (SDSS) open use Substance Dependence Severity Scale (SDSS): reliability and validity of a clinician-administered interview for DSM-IV substance use disorders. Drug and alcohol dependence, 59(1), 63-75.    
Revised Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP-R) open use      

Kinesophobia

Measure Availability  Citation  Measure Recommended  
Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) open use Miller, R. P., Kori, S. H., & Todd, D. D. (1991). The Tampa Scale: a measure of kinisophobia. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 7(1), 51. Waddell, G., Newton, M., Henderson, I., Somerville, D., & Main, C. J. (1993).    
Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) open use A Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) and the role of fear-avoidance beliefs in chronic low back pain and disability. Pain, 52(2), 157-168.    

Quality of Life

Measure Availability  Citation  Measure Recommended
SF-36 Health Survey v2.0 open use   Gandek, B., Sinclair, S. J., Kosinski, M., & Ware Jr, J. E. (2004). Psychometric evaluation of the SF-36® health survey in medicare managed care. Health care financing review, 25(4), 5. Ware, J., Kosinski, M., & Keller, S. D. (1995).  
SF-12 Health Survey v2.0 open use   How to score the SF-12 physical and mental health summary scales Boston. MA: The Health Institute, 2. Whoqol Group. (1998).  
WHO Quality of Life - BREF open use   Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological medicine28(3), 551-558.  

Pain Measures - Additional

Measure Availability  Citation  Measure Recommended
Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) open use Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) Nicholas, M. K. (2007).The pain self‐efficacy questionnaire: Taking pain into account. European journal of pain, 11(2), 153-163. The Chronic Pain Values Inventory (CPVI) McCracken, L. M. & Yang, S. (2006).    
The Chronic Pain Values Inventory (CPVI) open use The role of values in a contextual cognitive-behavioral approach to chronic pain. Pain, 123, 137-145.  
Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire – Revised (CPAQ-R) McCraken, L. M., Vowles, K. E. & Eccleston, C. (2004).
   
Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire – Revised (CPAQ-R) open use Acceptance of chronic pain: component analysis and a revised assessment method. Pain, 107, 159-166.    

 

Researcher and Clinician - Resource Topics of Interest

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